Art In Ancient India - Ancient Art India - Ancient Art Of India - Art Forms In Ancient India
Contribution of Ancient India toward Art and Literature. Article shared by: The ancient Indian masons and craftsmen produced wonderful works of art, starting. Each era is unique in its distinctive culture. In the same way Indian art forms have continuously evolved over thousands of years. In ancient India, various art. The general characteristics of the women in ancient Indian literature were image for Indian culture and an endless source of inspiration for Indian art and literature. The portrayal of women with the outer and inner beauty in relation to social.
Movie soundtracks are released as tapes and CDs, sometimes even before the movie is released. Indian classical dance and Indian folk dances Indian classical dance is performed in different styles. The Natya Shastra is the most important ancient treatise on classical Indian dance. It is also called the fifth Veda in reference to the foundation of Hindu religion and philosophy, from which sprang the related South Indian musical tradition of Carnatic music. Bharatanatyam is a classical dance form originating in Tamil Nadu.
It is thought to have been created by Bharata Muni. In ancient times Bharatanatyam was performed by mandir Hindu temple Devadasis.
Art in Ancient India
Many of the ancient sculptures in Hindu temples are based on Bharatanatyam dance postures karanas. Odissi is one of the oldest surviving forms of dance, with depictions of Odissi dancing dating back as far as the 1st century BC. Like other forms of Indian classical dance, the Odissi style traces its origins back to antiquity.
Dancers are found depicted in bas-relief in the hills of Udaygiri near Bhubaneswar dating back to the 1st century BC. The Natya Shastra speaks of the dance from this region and refers to it as Odra-Magadhi. Kathakali katha for storykali for performance or play is a form of dance- drama. It originated in the South Indian state of Kerala over years ago. It is a spectacular combination of drama, dance, music and ritual.
Characters with vividly painted faces and elaborate costumes re-enact stories from the Hindu epics, Mahabharata and Ramayana. Kuchipudi is the name of a small village in the Divi Taluq of Krishna district that borders the Bay of Bengal and with resident Brahmins practising this traditional dance form, it acquired the present name.
Mohiniaattam is a traditional dance from the South Indian state of Kerala.
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Mohini is an Apsaras in the Hindu mythology and aattam in Malayalam means dance. So Mohiniaattam essentially means "dance of the enchantress". The theme of Mohiniaattam is love and devotion to god.
The costume worn by the dancers are typically white coloured kasavu saree with golden borders. The Kathak dance form arose from the Vaishnava devotees dancing to the episodes from Krishna 's life.
Originally a Northern Indian temple dance, it was transformed to a court dance in the Mughal era. The new Muslim influence brought with it certain changes to the dance form: The Sattriya dance is believed to be a creation of the great Vaishnavite bhakti guru Srimanta Sankardeva considered the lead architect of Assamese literature and culture.
He created this magnificent Sattriya dance to accompany the Ankiya Naat a form of Assamese one-act play, another creation of Sankardeva which was usually performed in Satras Assamese monasteries. Since the dance developed and grew within the Satras, it is named after these religious institutions. Folk dances are performed for every possible occasion, to celebrate the arrival of seasons, birth of a child, a wedding and festivals.
The dances are very focused on gestures, postures, and expressions. The dances burst with verve and vitality. Men and women perform some dances exclusively, while in some performances men and women dance together.
On most occasions artists sing the main lyrics and are accompanied by instruments. Each form of dance has a specific costume. Most costumes are flamboyant with extensive jewels. Bhangra is a form of music and dance that originated in the Punjab region of India.
Bhangra dance began as a folk dance conducted by Punjabi farmers to celebrate the coming of Vaisakhia sikh festival.
The specific moves reflect the manner in which villagers farmed their land. This musical art further became synthesized after the partition of India, when refugees from different parts of the Punjab shared their folk dances with individuals who resided in the regions they settled in. This hybrid dance became Bhangra. The dance started from just one move and evolved later on.
It has been popularized by Punjabi artists from the Sikh communities, with which it is now commonly associated. Thirayattam is a ritual performing dance of south malabar region kozhikode and malappuram Dt: In Malayalam language, the word "Thirayattam" refers to a 'colourful dance' This vibrant Ethnic art form blend of dance,instrumental music, drama, facial and body makeup, martial art and ritualistic Function. Thirayattam enacted in courtyards of sacred groves and village shrines, during Thirayattam festival.
Sculpture in India first sculptures in India date back to the Indus Valley civilizationwhere stone and bronze carvings have been discovered. This is one of the earliest instances of sculpture in the world.
Later, as HinduismBuddhism and Jainism developed further, India produced some of the most intricate bronzes in the world, as well as unriveled temple carvings. Some huge shrines, such as the one at Ellora were not actually constructed using blocks, but instead carved out of solid rock, making them perhaps the largest and most intricate sculptures in the world.
During the 2nd to 1st century BCE in far northern India, in what is now southern Afghanistan and northern Pakistan, sculptures became more explicit, representing episodes of the Buddha's life and teachings.
Although India had a long sculptural tradition and a mastery of rich iconography, the Buddha was never represented in human form before this time, but only through some of his symbols. This may be because Gandharan Buddhist sculpture in modern Afghanistan displays Greek and Persian artistic influence. Artistically, the Gandharan school of sculpture is said to have contributed wavy hair, drapery covering both shoulders, shoes and sandals, acanthus leaf decorations, etc.
The pink sandstone sculptures of Mathura evolved during the Gupta period 4th to 6th century to reach a very high fineness of execution and delicacy in the modeling. Newer sculptures in Afghanistanin stucco, schist or clay, display very strong blending of Indian post-Gupta mannerism and Classical influence, Hellenistic or possibly even Greco-Roman.
Meanwhile, elsewhere in India, less anatomically accurate styles of human representation evolved, leading to the classical art that the world is now familiar with, and contributing to Buddhist and Hindu sculpture throughout Asia.
If you would like more information on this topic please let us recommend. A selection of Indian sculptures of various ages and styles Main article: The greatest monument of this period, executed in the supremacy of Chandragupta Maurya, was the old palace at the site of Kumhrar. Excavations at the site of Kumhrar nearby have unearthed the remains of the palace.
The palace is thought to have been an aggregated of buildings, the most important of which was an immense pillared hall supported on a high substratum of timbers. The pillars were set in regular rows, thus dividing the hall into a number of smaller square bays.
The number of columns is 80, each about 20 high. During the reign of Ashoka, stonework was highly diversified order and comprised lofty free-standing pillars, railings of stupas, lion thrones and other colossal figures.
The use of stone had reached great perfection during this time that even small fragments of stone art was given a high lustrous polish resembling fine enamel. This period noticeable the beginning of the Buddhist school of architecture, Ashoka was responsible for the construction of several stupas, which were large halls, capped with domes and bore symbols of Buddha.
Vipul Singh, For the next four hundred years after the great MauryasIndia remained politically separated and weak. It was recurrently invaded and plundered by outsiders.
In Gupta Dynasty, there was some stability. Different gods of Hindu were portrayed in sculpture with sensuous details. The animal figures were also made but vegetative patterns found no place in the art Prakash, It was the period of peace and prosperity and observed an unparalleled pinnacle of art, literature and the sciences. This period also witnessed as the beginning of Hindu temple architecture.
The Vishnu temple in Jabbalpur district, Siva temple at Bhumara in Negod, Parvati temple at Nachna in Ajaigah, temple of Siva at Deogarh in the Jahnsi district and nine rock-cut asylums in Gupta tradition at Udayagiri in Bhopal are the examples of fine architecture of the time Prakash, In Gupta administration, dancing became basic elements in upper class culture and dancing at courts was a common feature.
The history shown that some of the rulers of Gupta regime were musicians themselves Prakash, After the Guptas, there was only a brief glow, in the time of Harshavardhana of Kannauj.
A Chinese traveler, Huen-tsang visited India from - A. He made changes that had taken place in the lives of the Indian people since the days of the Guptas. Mahmud invaded the region in A. A century passed and another Muslim warrior Sultan Muhammad came from Ghur a neighbouring area of Ghazni with his slave governor, Qutbuddin Aibak.
Mughal Empire lasted from to The Muslims who supported for one God and the equality of all men, their simplicity and disapproval of caste system, polytheism, worship and ritualism became popular in the masses and most of the Hindus embraced Islam for the true faith, sincerity and purity of life which symbolized from the life of the Muslims.
But at the same time, there were Muslim writers and poets Muslim Sufi order who along with their Islamic traditions brought assimilation with Hinduism and the rulers offered Hindus the jobs in bureaucracy and in Army too, without compromising in the supremacy of Islam. Hindu music, art and dance were given space at the courts and Hindu motifs got blended with Islamic art Richard, In that period, the teachings of Islam and Quran forbade making of sculptures so human and animal statues and drawings are not found in this period Sharma, The Mosque and the Grave were major important buildings of the time.
The paintings in the regime of The emperors Khilji and Tughhluq included the calligraphy transcribing the text from the Holy Quran and also the garden scenes but no animated picture could be found in this time. The Mughal had good perception in art. The supremacy of Jehangir was also considered as the Golden age of Mughal painting, the portraits of emperors, members of royal families, holy men, saints, soldiers and dancing girls were depicted by the artists in the paintings Sharma, In the period of Muslim rule, there were decline of dancing art particularly in the North, only Kathak dance was the only survival in North with all its emotions and with the passage of time and the influence of the ruling elites became more and more secular Sharma, Well-known Persian, Hazrat Amir Khusrau was a poet, a musician and a soldier during that time.
The later emperors, Jahangir and Shahjahan displayed the same desire for music. Tansen played Rabab a musical instrument of that time and Amir Khusrau use to play sitar.
Tabla and Shehnai were other popular musical instruments in later years of Mughal rule Sharma, Sufism is a spiritual system that has had an incredible impact on world literature and has affected many cultures. The impact of Sufism on Islamic culture can also be observed in the design of many buildings and the architecture in general, the patterns of poetry and music, and the visual effect of colours and calligraphy Bayat and Jamnia, Art in the Muslim period prospered due to their decent taste and aesthetic sense.
The artists, writers, poets, thinkers, scholars from all over Asia came to their courts. It was a period of Indo-Islamic culmination of appearance and magnificence in arts music, painting, crafts and architecture and culture Richard, Historical reports indicated that All the Mughal rulers stimulated the artists and musicians and thus the people of different religions gather together and also the sufis saints of the time paved a way in bringing people together.
In the period of —The European came to India from the route of the sea. These were the Portuguese traders, then subsequently came the British, the French and the Dutch.
All these invaders brought with them the elements of western cultures into the art and ways of living of the people of the country. The Portuguese initiated the revival of glitzy art and the French introduced their tastes in the decorations of palaces and houses. The British brought with them the Britain style of architecture and also influenced their modes in paintings and sculptures to such an extent that the Indian mind became alien to their own inheritance.
Apart from these architectural leftovers, the colonial state also left behind a uniform system of government, a system of education based on Western ideas, science and philosophies. The salient aspects of Art Forms in India: It is documented that India have a rich and ancient history. Since ancient times there has been an amalgamation of indigenous and foreign influences that have shaped the course of the arts of India, and subsequently, the rest of Asia. Arts is defined as paintings, architecture, literature, music, dance, languages and cinema.
In early India, most of the arts were derived Vedic influences. It is analysed that each era is exclusive in its idiosyncratic culture.
Women in Hinduism
In the same way Indian art forms have constantly evolved over thousands of years. In ancient India, various art forms like paintings, architecture and sculpture evolved. The history of art in ancient India begins with prehistoric rock paintings as theoretical literature indicated.
After the birth of current Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, and Sikhism, arts thrived with the support of emperors. In the era of Islam, new form of Indian architecture and art were visible. Finally, the British brought their own Gothic and Roman influences and attached it with the Indian style. They have a culture infusion in their art.
The use of symbolic forms in India is ancient since the period of the Harappan seals. The fire altars of the Vedic period, with their astronomical and mathematical significance also play an important role in the development of the later temples.
It was followed by a period in the history of Indian art that is important for rock-cut caves and temple architecture. The rock-cut art has constantly progressed, since the first rock cut caves, to suit different purposes, social and religious contexts, and regional differences. Together with the art forms like architecture, paintings and sculpture, there have been evolving, changing, altering, folk and tribal art traditions in India.
These art forms are expression of people belonging to different cultural and social groups of India. It is the communication of people whose life is adjusted to the rhythms of nature and its laws of recurring change and whose life is tangled with natural energy.
In India tradition, Gods and legends are transformed into modern forms and familiar images. Fairs, festivals and local deities also has significant role in the development of these arts forms. It is an art where life and creativity are inseparable. The tribal arts of India have a unique sensitivity, as the tribal people possess an intense awareness very different from the settled and urbanized people. Their minds are flexible and intense with myth, legends, and snippets from epic, multitudinous gods born.
Their art is an expression of their life and holds their fervour and mystery. The greatest achievements of Indian civilization is unquestionably its architecture which was the outcome of socio-economic and geographical condition. Indian architecture is that vast drapery of production of the Indian subcontinent that includes a multitude of expressions over space and time, renovated by the forces of history considered exclusive to the sub-continent, sometimes abolishing, but most of the time absorbing.
The earliest production in the Indus Valley Civilization was characterised by well-planned cities and houses where religion did not seem to play an active role.
In early period, Hindu temple architecture have been traced to the remains at Aihole and Pattadakal in present day Karnataka, and have Vedic altars and late Vedic temples as described by Panini as models.
The older terminologies of Dravidian and Indo-Aryan are not used in recent practice because of their racial and uncertain origins. Buddhist elements and themes have influenced temple architecture to great extent. Previously, temples were rock-cut, later structural temples evolved.
The Kailasanatha temple at Ellora is best illustration of the former, excavated from top to bottom out of a massive rock face. The pyramid formed an essential architectonic feature in any temple composition- stepped in the Dravidian style, stepped and slightly curved in the Northern style.
The structural system was essentially trabeated and with stone being the basic raw material for the Indian craftsman, construction could be done with minimal or no mortar. Decoration was necessary to Indian architecture and is seen in the innumerable details of figured sculpture as well as in the architectural elements. The notion of fractals has been used to observe the form of the Hindu temple, both in terms of its planning and external appearance.
The garba-griha or the womb chamber forms the central focus housing the deity of the temple and is provided with a circumambulation passage around. However, there are also many subsidiary shrines within temple complexes, more particularly in the South Indian the Dravidian style temple. As the Hindu temple is not meant for congregational worship, the garba-griha is small in scale when compared to the whole temple complex.
However, it is articulated externally by the vimana or the sikhara. Pillared halls or mandapas are found preceding the garba-griha. The three-dimensional experience of a South Indian temple multifaceted and is considered particularly rich and meaningful. Among them, such as the Ranganathaswamy temple at Srirangam, the concentric enclosures or prakaras along with the series of gopurams or entrance gateways reducing in scale as they move towards the garbha-griha set up a rhythm of solids and voids as well as providing a ritual and visual axis.
The principles of temple architecture were organised in treatises and canons such as Manasara, Mayamatam, and Vaastu Shastra. These offered an ordering framework yet permitted a certain autonomy for contextual articulation. Presently, most of the ancient Hindu architecture flourishes in temples of south India and South-east Asia as the subsequent forces of Islam renovated the cultural landscape of India more dominantly in the north.
Rich literature have shown that the Jaina temples can be seen in the Dilwara Temples in Mt. With the arrival of Islam emperors, the arch and dome began to be used and the mosque or masjid too began to form part of the landscape, adding to a new experience in form and space.
The most famous Islamic building type in India is the tomb or the mausoleum which evolved from the basic cube and hemisphere vocabulary of the early phase into a more elaborate form during the Mughal era where multiple chambers are present and tombs were set in a garden known as the char-bagh. Popular architectural buildings are the Gol Gumbaz, Bijapur and the Taj Mahal, Agra, the latter renowned for its attractiveness in white marble, its minarets and its setting.
With colonisation, a new episode began. Though the Dutch, Portuguese and the French made substantial raids, it was the English who had a lasting impact.
The architecture of the colonial period varied from the beginning attempts at creating authority through classical prototypes to the later approach of producing a supposedly more responsive image through what is now termed Indo-Saracenic architecture, a mixture of Hindu, Islamic and Western elements.
After independence and initiation of Modern Architecture into India, the quest was more towards progress as a paradigm fuelled by Nehruvian visions. The planning of Chandigarh is good example. Later on as modernism exhausted itself in the West and new directions were sought for, in India too there was a search for a more expressive architecture rooted in the Indian situation. Apart from this, process of globalisation and economic development in the decade of the 90s, has produced an inspiring collection of modern Information Technology campuses and skyscrapers, and as economic reform accelerates, metropolitan areas are gaining innovative horizons.
Indian literature is generally recognized, but not wholly established, as the oldest in the world. India has 22 officially recognized languages, and large form of literature has been produced in these languages over the years.
Sanskrit literature has a special place in Indian civilization. It extended from about BC to AD maha and reached its height in the period from the 1st to the 7th centuries AD. The two major one of the oldest literatures Ramayana and Mahabharatha, and Abhigyanashakuntalam, Meghadutam by Kalidasa, are the best examples.
In Indian literature, oral and written forms are both important. Hindu literary traditions govern a large part of Indian culture. The Vedas are the earliest known literature in India Pande, The Vedas were written in Sanskrit and were handed down orally from one generation to the other. Each Veda consists of the Brahmanas, the Upanishads and the Aranyakas. In later years the Atharava Veda was incorporated in this group. The Rig Veda is the original of the Vedas. It is a collection of hymns in Vedic Sanskrit.
Many of these are beautiful explanations of nature. The prayers are largely for seeking worldly prosperity. It is supposed that these recitations are the natural outpouring of Vedic rishis experiencing a mentally transcendental stage. Some of the prominent goddesses are Usha - the goddess of dawn, Vak - the goddess of speech and Prithvi - the goddess of earth. Yajur entails sacrifice or worship. This Veda is related with resources and mantras of different sacrifices. It gives directions for the performance of the yajnas.
It has both poetic and prose versions. Being a treatise on rituals, it is the most popular of the four Vedas. Vajasaneyi Samhita and Taitriya Samhita. This text replicates on the social and religious condition of India at that time. Sama means tune or songs. This Veda comprises of 6, ragas and raginis or musical notes. Out of total verses only 75 are original and others are from the Rig Veda.
The Sama Veda suggests the tunes for the recitation of the hymns of the Rig Veda. It may be called the book of Chants Saman. This book is an evidence of the development of Indian music during this period. The Atharva Veda is also recognized as the Brahma Veda. It contains treatment for ninety-nine diseases.
The source of this Veda is traced to two rishis called Atharvah and Angiras. The Atharva Veda has great value as it signifies the religious ideas at an ancient time of civilisation. It has two categories, the Paippalada and the Saunaka. This book gives detailed information about the family, social and political life of later Vedic period. In brief, Vedas provide education sikshagrammar vyakaranaritual kalpaetymology niruktametrics chhanda and astronomy Jyotisha.
After creation of the four Vedas, other works known as the Brahmanas were developed. These books gave a thorough explanation of Vedic rituals and instructions and deal with the science of sacrifice. The latter portions of the Brahmanas were called the Aranyakas while the final parts of the Aranyakas are metaphysical books named Upanishads which belong to the later stage of the Brahmana literature. Each of the four Vedas have their own Brahmana books. Rig Veda had Kaushitaki and Aitreya. Tandav, Panchvish and Jaimaniya belongs to Atharva Veda.
It is through them that we get a detailed information of the social, political and religious life of the people. The Arayankas deal with soul, birth and death and life beyond it. These were studied and taught by men in Vanprastha i. Munis and the inhabitants living inside the forests. After that Upnishads were produced as literature. The Upanishads mark the conclusion of Indian thought and are the final parts of the Vedas. Historical texts represented that there are more than known Upanishads, one of which, the Muktika, gives a list of Upanishads.
This number corresponds to the holy number of beads on a mala or Hindu rosary. The Upanishads form an important part of Indian literary inheritance.