From DNA to Protein (flash) | Video | klokkenluideronline.info
The terminology can be somewhat confusing. Dysferlin is a protein, and "the dysferlin gene" means "the gene which contains the instructions for producing the . Description: Interactive tutorials on DNA, genes, chromosomes, protein, heredity, and Source: Genome Research Limited and Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute . Experiment with the forces involved and measure the relationship between the . Exon Structure of a Mannose-binding Protein Gene Reflects Its. Evolutionary Relationship to the Asialoglycoprotein Receptor and. Nonfibrillar Collagens Searle Scholars Program of the Chicago Community Trust. The costs.
One important difference is that RNA molecules do not include the base thymine T. Instead, they have the similar base uracil U. Like thymine, uracil pairs with adenine.
Identity of the sugars. Bears a thymine base that has a methyl group attached to its ring.
Bears a uracil base that is very similar in structure to thymine, but does not have a methyl group attached to the ring. Although RNA transcripts are not made up of two separate strands, RNA can sometimes fold back on itself to form double-stranded regions and complex 3D structures.
In addition, some viruses have genomes made of double-stranded RNA. Transcription and RNA processing: Ribosomes are RNA-and-protein structures in the cytosol where proteins are actually made.
In eukaryotes such as humansa primary transcript has to go through some extra processing steps in order to become a mature mRNA. During processingcaps are added to the ends of the RNA, and some pieces of it may be carefully removed in a process called splicing.
These steps do not happen in bacteria. Transcription takes place in the nucleus. The primary transcript also undergoes processing steps in the nucleus in order to become a mature mRNA. It is then exported to the cytosol, where it can associate with a ribosome and direct synthesis of a polypeptide in the process of translation. Transcription takes place in the cytosol.
Because of this, the mRNA doesn't have to travel anywhere before it can be translated by a ribosome. In fact, a ribosome may begin translating a mRNA before it is even fully transcribed while transcription is still going on. The location of transcription is also different between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Eukaryotic transcription takes place in the nucleus, where the DNA is stored, while protein synthesis takes place in the cytosol. Because of this, a eukaryotic mRNA must be exported from the nucleus before it can be translated into a polypeptide.
Prokaryotic cells, on the other hand, don't have a nucleus, so they carry out both transcription and translation in the cytosol. Translation After transcription and, in eukaryotes, after processingan mRNA molecule is ready to direct protein synthesis. The process of using information in an mRNA to build a polypeptide is called translation.
The genetic code During translation, the nucleotide sequence of an mRNA is translated into the amino acid sequence of a polypeptide. Proteins perform all sorts of different tasks in your cells such as making eye pigments, powering muscles, and attacking invading bacteria.
Genes made Easy
For example some cells use genes that contain instructions to make a protein called keratin. Keratin proteins link together in your body to make things like your hair and fingernails. Genes are made of DNA, genes make proteins, proteins make cells and cells make you Have you ever wondered why you have the same eye color as your dad or the same hair color as your mum? You get half from your mum and half from your dad.
When you inherit genes from your parents you get two versions of each gene, one from your mum and one from your dad. Some versions of genes are more dominant than others; if you get blue-eye genes from mum and brown-eye genes from dad you will have brown eyes because brown-eye genes are dominant.
Why are you different from your brothers and sister?
Intro to gene expression (central dogma) (article) | Khan Academy
When they pass their genes on to you they only pass on one of these versions, and it is completely random which one it will be. For example if your mum has brown-eye and blue-eye genes she could pass the blue ones on to you and the brown ones on to your sibling. How do genes affect your health? Your genes are the instruction manual that makes your body work. Sometimes, one or a few bases of the DNA in a gene can vary between people. This is called a variant.
A variant means the gene has slightly different instructions to the usual version. Occasionally, this may causes the gene to give cells different instructions for making a protein, so the protein works differently.
Intro to gene expression (central dogma)
Luckily most gene variants have no effect on health. But a few variants do affects proteins that do really important things in your body, and then you can become ill. Genetic conditions are diseases you develop when you inherit a variant in a gene from your parents.
As a result genetic conditions usually run in families. Scientists have identified over 10, genetic conditions. One genetic condition is called sickle cell anemia.
People with this illness have a variant in the genes that contain instructions to make haemolglobin proteins. Hemoglobin helps your red blood cells carry oxygen around your body. These sickle cell haemoglobin genes cause red blood cells to be the wrong shape, making it hard for them to carry oxygen around the body.
Not all gene variants cause a genetic condition. Many variants seem to have no effects at all, others may increase your risk of developing a disease. Rarely, there are women who are particularly at risk of developing breast cancer, because they carry some gene variants. This can save lives. How does your environment affect you? Your characteristics are affected by your environment as well as your genes.