History. Top. After Pakistan's creation in , Afghanistan objected to its admission to . Afghanistan and India have enjoyed a historically cordial relationship. Afghanistan is Pakistan's most proximate neighbor. Being Muslim countries both are tended to have brotherly relations. But throughout the history it has been. relations between Pakistan and Afghanistan in the last thirty two years If past history was to be invoked to determine the future of the Indo-Afghan border, then .
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. July Main articles: This entire area is inhabited by the indigenous Pashtuns who belong to different Pashtun tribes. The single-page agreement, which contained seven short articles, was signed by Durand and Khan, agreeing not to exercise political interference beyond the frontier line between Afghanistan and what was then the British Indian Empire.
Concurrently, the Afridi tribesmen began to rise up in arms against the British, creating a zone of instability between Peshawar and the Durand Line. As a result, travel across the boundary was almost entirely halted, and the Pashtun tribes living under the British rule began to orient themselves eastward in the direction of the Indian railways.
By the time of the Indian independence movementprominent Pashtun nationalists such as Abdul Ghaffar Khan advocated unity with the nearly formed Dominion of Indiaand not a united Afghanistan — highlighting the extent to which infrastructure and instability began to erode the Pashtun self-identification with Afghanistan. By the time of Pakistan independence movementpopular opinion among Pashtuns was in support of joining the Dominion of Pakistan.
The Afghan government has not formally accepted the Durand Line as the international border between the two states, claiming that the Durand Line Agreement has been void in the past. Pakistan felt that the border issue had been resolved before its birth in It also feared a revolt from the warring tribes which could eventually have brought the state down as it happened when Ahmad Shah Durrani unified the Pashtuns and toppled the Mughal Empire of India.
This unmanagable border has always served as the main trade route between Afghanistan and the South Asiaespecially for supplies into Afghanistan. Secondly, it politically and financially backed secessionist politicians in the Khyber Pakhtunkhwa in the s. The Afghan government denied involvement, saying they were pro-Pashtunistan tribesmen. Diplomatic relations were restored in September.
In August, the consulates in both countries closed and relations were broken in September The situation was not defused until about The first stage from the late s to the mids is characterized by the attempts of the Afghan authorities to use the fact that Pakistan was an entirely new political entity that appeared in after the simultaneous voluntary and forced withdrawal of the colonialists from Hindustan.
The difficulties of the initial stage of the formation of the borders and the territorial structure of the Pakistani state allowed Kabul to pursue an offensive policy towards the neighbor, seeking to secure access to the Arabian Sea with support for the separatist autonomist in Pakistan.
The first period was marked by the efforts of the Afghan authorities to get Pakistan to abandon the border along the Durand Line and from the ownership of the eastern Pashtun territories to Pakistan. The second period lasted from the mids to the turn of the s and s. After overcoming the acute crisis in bilateral relations the early sa period of relative equilibrium began, which was not violated even by the wars of Pakistan with India in and The third stage covers the s.
Pakistan, losing as a result of the events of its eastern province, transformed into an independent state of Bangladesh. Since the mids, the role of the Islamic factor in regional politics has increased, and Pakistan has become one of the hotbeds of Islamization from above. In relations with Afghanistan, he uses Islamists as a force opposing Kabul. Afghanistan tried to play a map of ethnonational separatism that swept the western Balochistan and north-western Pashtun provinces of Pakistan, but at the end of the period, yielding to the demands of Iran and the US, tried to establish a dialogue with Pakistan, agreeing to negotiate with him on the border.
The fourth stage begins with the turn of the ss and ends with the beginning of the s. This period was the time of the most severe confrontation between the two neighboring states.
India has launched proxy war against Pakistan in Afghanistan. She regards herself the bargainer of affairs in south Asia and wants to keep her political and economic influence in Afghanistan and keep Pakistan out.
Pakistan and Afghanistan after 9/11: A Case of the Failing Bilateralism”
Due to Indian factor the ties between the two neighbours are not very cordial. Mediation and Bilateral Moves Efforts were made by the brotherly Muslim country Turkey and USA to bring both countries to negotiating table and reduce their tensions. Several Ministerial level and Head of State level meetings were organized by US and Turkey in which efforts were made to ease the tensions between the two. Kerzi and Musharraf met at Loya Jerga in Kabul in Augustboth the leaders agreed to make a working group and build confidence between the two neighbors [ 4 ].
The new government expressed strong desire to maintain friendly and cordial relation with Afghanistan. After Musharraf left his presidential seat Mr. Asif Ali Zardari became the new president. Kerzi did not miss the occasion, during their meeting both the leaders made their pledges to help each other in countering terrorism. President Zardari visited Kabul in Januarydiscussed the bilateral issues and signed an agreement aimed at countering terrorism. In September Foreign Ministers level meeting was held between the two countries during which pledges were renewed for countering terrorism [ 5 ].
In agriculture sector, creation of a Pakistan-Afghanistan Food Bank was proposed. While in the energy sector joint strategies for early implementation of trans-Afghan energy projects were agreed with particular focus on CASA and Turkmenistan-Afghanistan- Pakistan gas pipeline. Pakistan permitted the use of Gowader and port Qasim for Afghan transit trade, and eighteen roads inside Pakistan to India.
Pakistan also announced aid package for Afghanistan to rebuild rail track, roads, schools, universities and hospitals [ 6 ].
- Historical perspective of Pak-Afghan Relations
- Afghanistan–Pakistan relations
Its role was to reconcile with Taliban. The HPC was assigned the tasks ; meeting the Taliban and other insurgent groups and bringing them to the talking table.
Afghanistan–Pakistan relations - Wikipedia
In his message the president of afhganistan said: We take serious the issue of durable peace in our country. Peace is an essential element of political stability. A country that is entangled with insecurity and where its people have no safety and security, cannot achieve stability — Hamid Karzi The main aim behind all this was to decide the future for Afghanistan. In SeptemberRabbani was assassinated in Kabul in a suicide attack.
The Afghan president put the allegations on Pakistan without any solid proof. So the relations deteriorated once again. Pakistan denounced her envolement by condemning the attack and assured Afghan authorities of her cooperation [ 7 ]. Kerzi signed a strategic and trade agreement with India to promote cooperation. It also provided India to use the Afghan soil for conspiracies against Pakistan. India never wanted to lose any such opportunity which can have negative impacts on Pakistan.
Pakistan has great influence inside Afghanistan. Specially in the Pashtun belt and also in the warlords of Afghanistan. In the border areas, the Pakistanis and the Afghanis have fraternal and maternal relations. Also, they have intermarried and interwined such as no one can separate them.
The Pakistani populace along with her govenment have great sympathies with the Afghan government and her people. The role of Diplomacy Understanding this relationship a delegation of the non Pashtun leaders including the former foreign Minister Abdullah Abdullah, Ahmad Zia Masood, Uzbek warlord Rashid Dostum came to Islamabad where they met the Pakistani leadership to find ways for bilateral cooperation.
Pakistan renewed her pledge to help in the stability and prosperity of Afghanistan. Pakistan assured having no sympathy with the insurgent elements inside Afghanistan.
The British premier Mr. David Cameron visited Kabul in July The two leaders agreed to make a joint commission to investigate about the borders issues. In the annual meeting of UN both the leaders met in New York and discussed bilateral issues.
Kerzi also expressed his interest in making a strategic pact with Pakistan to reduce tension and revise the reconciliation process in Afghanistan. For the last several years the joint HPC have met more than 20 times and discussed different issues. In December the Afghan foreign Minister Zalmai Rassoul visited Islamabad, met his Pakistani counterpart and discussed road map On the eve Pakistan released 15 more Taliban leaders as a gesture of goodwill.
Inthe Afghan intelligence head of services Hassamuddin Hassam came to Islamabad to discuss the issues of common interest. He expressed his desire to get the Afghan military officers trained in Pakistan Military Academy. The participants agreed to take necessary measures to secure a peace deal with Taliban within six months and also given permission to Taliban to open an office in Qatar for the peace talk with HCP.
In this meeting Pakistan stressed the Afghan president to roll back the strategic pact with India but he did not agree to it. Arising Borders Skirmishes Consequently, the relations once again became fragile.
Pakistan and Afghanistan after 9/ A Case of the Failing Bilateralismâ | OMICS International
Another setback came when the Afghan border military forces opened fire on Pakistani forces in early May In reaction, Pakistani forces paid in the same coin. During these clashes policemen were killed on both sides.
The accident happened just few days before the general elections in Pakistan. These developments were not welcomed in Pakistan. After taking the oath, Kerzi was the first president to call Prime Minister Nawaz Sharif and congratulate him on his Primiership.
He also expressed his hope for betterment in relations and that both the countries would help each other in the war against terrorism. For this purpose foreign policy advisor Mr. Sartaj Aziz visited to Kabul to discuss bilateral issues. During his visit both the leaders discussed different issues and projects of bilateral interest. Pakistan reassured that a happy and prosperous Afghanistan was in the best interest of Pakistan. During this visit Pakistan released several Taliban leaders from prison as goodwill gesture [ 8 ].
Meeting his Afghan counterpart Mr. Dar also expressed his wish to increase trade with other countries of the region. Pakistan has been cooperating in socio economic development of Afghanistan and making investment in many projects like a beds Jinnah hospital in Kabul, a beds hospital in Logar, Liaquat Ali Khan Engineering University in Balkh, Rehman Baba School and a Hostel for children in Kabul, Nishtar Kidney Hospital in Jalalabad and the dual carriageway from Torkham to Jalalabad.