Hungarians in Romania - Wikipedia
reasons arising in the Hungarian-Romanian relationship, the first tion, refugee affairs, Romanian-Hungarian tensions, state security services. A row has broken out between Bucharest and Budapest over autonomy for ethnic Hungarians in part of Romania's Transylvania region. is going to be an important year for both Romania and Hungary. Romania is starting the centenary year – the anniversary of the birth of.
However, since the interest of the Hungarian governments has slightly changed. Through the institutionalization of dual citizenship and the right to vote, the ethnic Hungarians in Romania holding Hungarian citizenship i.
What do the Hungarians think about the Hungarian-Romanian relations? | Romania Insider
From now on, the issue of foreign Hungarians plays more than a symbolic role in the Hungarian politics: The mobilization around ethnic Hungarian interests and their protection in the adjacent countries are also traditionally important instruments of the election campaigns, including the current one. The Romanian reactions to the declaration were predictable.
As usual, the autonomy demands produced a storm of indignation and rigid rejection. The Romanian argumentation is generally based on the following arguments.
Firstly, the influence and role of Budapest is usually overestimated. Within this discursive shift, the minority problems in general become an issue generated from abroad, and not the responsibility of the Romanian state. From this point of view, Hungary is traditionally an important external and rather not too friendly factor, embedded in a specific geopolitical frame through its relations with Russia.
The repercussions of the interwar period are obvious here. Secondly, the minority issue in general is treated as a problem of national security. This is what makes the criminalization of autonomy issues possible.
At best, critics acknowledge the economic backwardness of the regions inhabited by ethnic Hungarians mostly Szeklerland.
However, the ethnic Hungarian elites are blamed for this too. Thirdly, the Romanian reactions often refer to the autonomy demands as a sign of loyalty and belonging deficit. Moreover, the Romanian discourse usually stresses that the Romanian model of interethnic relations is an exemplary one which is also recognized by the international partners.
Thus, the Hungarian demands are considered as exaggerated or even unfounded. This attitude was also reflected in a TV-show aired on January 11 which led to an international scandal. At first, in a popular talk-show a declaration of the Romanian Academy legitimated the intransigent refusal of the Hungarian demands and stressed the importance of the centenary.
With this gesture the prime minister tried to assign the duty to the local authorities and institutions, and to get rid of the cumbrous questions pertinent to the minority issues.
They fit into the general attitude towards the Hungarian collective demands in Romania. The case highlighted the Hungarian question in Romania again, i.
It particularly applies to the issue of the Szeklers and their symbols, which already caused a long symbolic conflict several years ago.
Although the prime minister eventually resigned from his office certainly not due to the media scandal, but because of his conflicts with Liviu Dragnea, the leader of the ruling Social Democratsthe main problem related to the Hungarian minority remained an open question. On the one hand, it is the economic backwardness and the structural problems of the Szekler region and the relative depression of the Hungarian communities in Romania. On the other hand, it is the demand of cultural recognition and emancipation, together with wish of belonging and attachment to the home region.
The Principality of Transylvania was governed by its princes and its parliament Diet. With the defeat of the Ottomans at the Battle of Vienna inthe Habsburg Empire gradually began to impose their rule on the formerly autonomous Transylvania. Habsburgs abolished the Unio Trium Nationum and granted citizenship to ethnic Romanians. However, in the compromise Ausgleich ofwhich established the Austro-Hungarian Empirethe special status of Transylvania ended and it became a province under the control of the Kingdom of Hungary.
Hungarian becomes the official language and a policy of Magyarization was applied to the various ethnic groups in Transylvania.
What do the Hungarians think about the Hungarian-Romanian relations?
The ethnic Romanian majority in Transylvania elected representatives, who then proclaimed Union with Romania on 1 December Map of Romania with "Transylvania proper" in bright yellow With the conclusion of World War I, the Treaty of Versaillesformally signed in Junerecognized the sovereignty of Kingdom of Romania over Transylvania as a historic fact.
The Treaties of St. Germain and Trianon signed on June further elaborated the status of Transylvania and defined the new border between the states of Hungary and Romania. As a result, the more than 1. Historian Keith Hitchins  summarizes the situation created by the award: Some 1, to 1, Romanians, or 48 per cent to over 50 per cent of the population of the ceded territory, depending upon whose statistics are used, remained north of the new frontier, while aboutHungarians other Hungarian estimates go as high as , Romanian as low ascontinued to reside in the south.
After the war, ina Magyar Autonomous Region was created in Romania by the communist authorities. The region was dissolved inwhen a new administrative organization of the country still in effect today replaced regions with counties.