Punishment (psychology) - Wikipedia
The following are some examples of positive reinforcement: Negative reinforcement occurs when a certain stimulus (usually an aversive. This type of learning occurs due to the cause-and-effect relationship between a others (CSO's) to reward the addicted person's positive, healthy behaviors. For example, suppose a spouse loses his/her job because of irregular work However, these sorts of drastic negative consequences (punishments) are the last. We can either give something to the organism (called "positive" because we are adding a For example, students could receive negative punishment for having their phones out. Journal of Experimental Psychology, 29, drawing · dual coding · elaboration · evidence-based practice · exercise.
Some people do not enjoy certain substances or activities. This protects them from developing an addiction simply because those substances or activities are not enjoyable. They are not rewarding. Addiction is a learned behavior because the initial pleasure or enjoyment was rewarding. According to the principles of operant conditioning, rewarded behaviors will increase. Of particular concern is that most addictive substances and activities are immediately rewarding. Research has taught us that when we immediately reward a behavior people and animals learn it more quickly.
This also explains why the addictive substance or activity tends to replace other, more healthy sources of reward. These other types of rewards are frequently delayed such as the return of good health. An unfortunate cycle also develops.
As addiction progresses, the availability of natural, healthy pleasures rewards decline due to the addiction. Loved ones become bitter. Meaningful jobs or hobbies are lost or abandoned. When this happens, addicted people become more and more dependent on their addiction as their sole source of reward.
This creates an unfortunate but powerful addictive cycle. Punishment also plays an important role in the development of addiction. If there is an early and significant punishment perhaps a DUI, or a medical problem then the addiction might not develop.
In many cases, punishments for addiction occur much later, when the addiction is already firmly in place. At this point, many chemical and physiological changes have already occurred in the brain.
Behaviorism in the Classroom — The Learning Scientists
This makes it more difficult to discontinue the addiction. Simultaneously, unhealthy cognitive and emotional patterns have become well-established. This too makes it more difficult to change addictive behavior. Therefore, in these later stages of addiction punishment alone is usually insufficient to create a lasting change.
The most successful approach is to increase rewards for healthy behavioral choices while eliminating rewards for addictive behavior. Operant conditioning has resulted in several effective treatments. The basic idea is to reward addicted people for making healthier, recovery-oriented choices. However, research has made it very clear: The rewards must have some value, and the reward must be substantial.
Again, this has a common sense ring to it. It's unlikely an addicted person would give up their addiction for a piece of chocolate. However, they might give it up for a car! It follows that what might be rewarding to one person, would be meaningless to the next. For a very hungry person food might be very rewarding. However, if someone just finished a Thanksgiving feast, food is unlikely to be rewarding. Addictions research has demonstrated that by rewarding some people with inexpensive but desired items they can increase the number of abstinent days.
This is particularly true for people with limited financial means. These positive and negative consequences need to be considered before making such decisions. Further, once a decision is made to take part in such a relationship, it is essential for the professional to develop a plan for moving forward in these multiple roles in an ethical manner.
Rationales for engaging in Multiple Role Relationships Despite the drawbacks which have been associated with multiple role relationships, practitioners in sport psychology still continue to engage in this practice.
One of the primary reasons for the continuation of practitioners taking part in multiple role relationships is likely due to the small number of qualified sport psychology practitioners. As one would expect, consultants is not nearly enough to provide services to all interested individuals and teams across the United States, let alone the world. Because of this paucity of qualified consultants, those who do consult are often pulled in many different directions such as teaching, consulting, research and service, increasing the opportunities for multiple role relationships to occur.
Another possible reason why professionals persist in entering multiple role relationships could be the convenience associated with having one individual, with appropriate qualifications, fulfill two complementary roles Buceta, Furthermore, the decreased cost associated with employing one individual to fulfill multiple roles could also contribute to the occurrences of multiple role relationships Figone, Furthermore, a researcher in applied sport and exercise psychology would be very well informed about best practices in the field when working with a client.
Operant Conditioning And Addiction
Potential problems associated with Multiple Role Relationships It must also be stated that despite the rationales which could be presented in defense of multiple role relationships there are a few major problems which can arise as a result of these relationships.
This occurrence can have important ramifications for the clients with whom this person works. Having to perform multiple roles can also put a strain on an individual and as such their work effectiveness maybe adversely affected. Practical Approach for Handling Multiple Role Relationships As can be inferred from the previous literature review, multiple role relationships are at best tricky to work with, and at worst destructive to both the client and practitioner.
As such, it is best for practitioners to enter into such relationships only when they are unavoidable. Although it is impossible to foresee all possible problems that may occur, there are several steps that can be taken to reduce the risk of such problems occurring. When one becomes aware of a potential multiple role relationship, it is prudent to look for methods of avoiding such a relationship e.
If such relationships are not avoidable, proactive communication is of the utmost importance. Practitioners are encouraged to talk with the clients who will also be affected by the multiple role relationship, either as early as possible or even before such a relationship begins. During this discussion, the practitioner should clearly articulate the possible problems caused by multiple role relationships e.
The primary goals of this communication should be to: It would be unreasonable to assume that all clients would be concerned about or able to understand the possible ramifications of a multiple role relationship.
Further, it is possible that many if not most clients would not be willing to approach a practitioner to discuss multiple role relationship problems. For these reasons, the professional needs to be continually alert to the possibilities of problems occurring. As such, the professional should be looking for changes in client behavior and emotional outlook, as well as little changes such as facial and body expressions, amount of interaction, and communication patterns.
In doing so, it is wise to realize that the client may not be completely comfortable with this discussion for several reasons.
It is also possible because of the power differential and closeness of the consulting relationship that the client would feel as if they are letting their practitioner down. In such cases, it is very possible that clients would feel some amount of abandonment. If suspicions about problems are found or highly suspected to be true, it is recommended that the practitioner take steps to alleviate these problems.
This leaves the door open for the practitioner to consider several different options based upon the demands of the situation, the ethics codes and the guiding ethical principles.
Possible solutions could include: The most appropriate solution is the one that serves the best interests of the client and allows the practitioner to remain ethical.Operant Conditioning - Negative Reinforcement vs Positive Punishment
It is recommended that practitioners use appropriate ethical decision making models Code of Ethics for Psychologists, ; Tarvydas, and consult with other practitioners when making such decisions so as to ensure that they are considering all relevant information. In situations when no problems are suspected or identified, it is still good practice for the practitioner to periodically talk with the client about the multiple role relationship and any possible problems.
Conclusion In conclusion, it is important to remember that multiple role relationships in sport psychology increase the potential for many and varied problems for both practitioners and clients.
As such, it is the ethical responsibility of the practitioner to get involved in multiple role relationships only when the potential for harm to the client is limited and all reasonable steps to avoid such problems have been taken.
Given that the potential for harm is high, it is also important to remember that in many instances these situations may be effectively handled by practitioners who are aware of the pros and cons of such relationships and remain cognizant of the many possible issues and problems.
To handle these situations effectively requires due diligence on the part of both the practitioner and client.
Unfortunately, the client is often much less prepared emotionally, educationally, and experientially to deal with the complications of such relationships, and in most situations are also the ones with less power and in most danger of being exploited. Therefore, to remain ethical, it is essential for the professional to provide guidance, support and knowledge to the client about the multiple-relationship and the potential benefits and harms that may result from it.
The professional is also encouraged to closely monitor these relationships and to use sound ethical decision making to handle the problems that occur. References American Psychological Association Ethical principles of psychologists and code of conduct. American Psychologist, 47, American Psychological Association Retrieved August 20,from http: A challenge for the researcher as practitioner?
Journal of Research in Nursing, 11, Association for Applied Sport Psychology n.
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Advice and insights for building a successful career. Dual relationships in counseling. American Association for Counseling and Development. Journal of Physical Education Recreation and Dance, 5, Multiple roles in an applied setting: Trainee sport psychologist, coach, and researcher. The Sport Psychologist, 21, Clinical research and the physician-patient relationship: The dual roles of physician and researcher. What makes them so problematic? Journal of Counseling and Development, 67, Canadian Medical Association Journal, Clinical trials and physicians as double agents.
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