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The twelve-item CPC exhibits the anticipated factorial structure with a very good model fit and associations to other constructs concur with previous findings with other measures of PsyCap. Introduction Psychological capital PsyCap draws from the significant body of research that Seligman and Csikszentmihalyi [ 1 ] have initiated in the wake of the positive psychology movement. In shifting the focus of psychological research from human deficits like mental illnesses to human assets, strengths were scientifically studied and have been found to allow individuals, groups or even organizations to thrive and prosper [ 1 ].
Extending these findings to the work place, Luthans [ 2 ] identified psychological constructs i.
These five constructs were labeled positive organizational behavior POB [ 2 ]. This construct was developed to provide practitioners with a new framework to ensure a sustainable competitive advantage via human resources [ 3 ]. It influences a variety of outcomes at the individual level of particular importance for organizations and even beyond the work place [ 13 ].
Psychological Capital Questionnaire - Wikipedia
Previous research however focused heavily on a domain-specific measure settled in the context of work. PsyCap is shown to be associated with desirable employee attitudes, such as staying intentions [ 13 ], job satisfaction and commitment [ 1415 ].
Employees high in PsyCap are found to be more empowered, which subsequently leads to less turnover intentions [ 16 ], and the reduction of absenteeism [ 17 ]. Furthermore, individuals high in PsyCap perform better than those low in PsyCap since they can draw upon more resources to pursue goals [ 1819 ]. Most importantly, PsyCap is shown to be developable through training interventions [ 15 ], which makes it a useful and tangible construct actually able to influence individuals and even whole organizations in a positive way.
Besides these work place-specific benefits, studies found evidence linking PsyCap to an improved psychological and physical well-being by the reduction of stress [ 20 ]. Because of the reciprocal relationship between job satisfaction and life satisfaction [ 21 ], PsyCap enhances the latter.
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Due to the fact that PsyCap consists of more general constructs hope, optimism, self-efficacy and resilience the question at hand is—Is PsyCap merely a domain-specific construct with effects solely in work-related areas or is it a much broader construct influencing many possible areas of life? It was developed as a compound measure consisting of modified items from published scales for hope [ 23 ], optimism [ 24 ], resilience [ 25 ], and self-efficacy [ 26 ].
Predominantly, the PCQ was used in employee, manager and student samples [ 22 ], and its items are closely tied to the work place i. One can thus state that the PCQ is a domain-specific measure. Since PsyCap is shown to be linked to outcomes of general importance for individuals [ 20 ], this study aims to design and validate a universal measure for the construct.
Such a non-domain-specific measure could expedite research on PsyCap for constructs in other domains, i. Therefore, we conducted two different studies.
Study 1 drew from the item pool of published and proven measures for the four different PsyCap components to create a compound measure, which is deployable in a wide range of applications including the work place. For testing convergent and discriminant validity, we additionally surveyed the existing PCQ and a measure for occupational self-efficacy. In study 2, we re-tested the factorial structure of the CPC Furthermore, to test the external validity of the CPC, we also selected several important positive psychological constructs—affect, job satisfaction, satisfaction with life, subjective well-being, perceived social support, meaning of work, engagement, gratitude and personality.
The specific hypotheses regarding the associations between the CPC and these constructs are discussed below. These studies found that people high in PA show more effective problem resolving skills, more mature coping efforts, experience less conflict at the office [ 27 ] and furthermore that positive emotions enhance resilience in the face of adversity [ 28 ]. People who show more PA are also more optimistic and more likely to maintain a positive outlook during times of adversity [ 27 ].
Additionally, they are found to be high in personal competence and self-esteem and report higher self-efficacy [ 272930 ]. There is evidently a remarkable overlap between PA and PsyCap.Luthans on Psychological Capital
One study even found that the predictive power of PsyCap on work performance, motivation and job satisfaction becomes insignificant once one accounts for PA [ 31 ].
Nonetheless the same study also pointed out that none of the PA-items loaded with the PsyCap constructs, meaning that besides the overlap, they are still clearly distinct constructs. This makes sense if you bear in mind the negative effects that PsyCap has on states like stress and anxiety [ 20 ]. Job satisfaction There is a clear relationship between job satisfaction and PsyCap. Studies indicate that people high in PsyCap also report higher job satisfaction [ 121319 ]. One explanation for this relationship is given by Avey, Reichard [ 13 ] who state: In addition Luthans, Avolio [ 19 ] declare that employees who are hopeful and efficacious are more satisfied with their jobs due to better performance.
They are confident to persist, accept challenges and put effort into achieving their goals efficacy.
Furthermore they identify subgoals and pathways to achieve them and are able to foresee and overcome obstacles by pursuing a variety of pathways hope. We therefore expect the CPC to positively correlate with job satisfaction in about the same range as stated above.
Satisfaction with life Previous studies on PsyCap concentrated on work-related outcomes, i. Nonetheless work and non-work life influence each other [ 32 ] and there is a positive correlation between job satisfaction and life satisfaction [ 33 ].
Ford, Heinen [ 32 ] name time-based pressure as one major reason for this mutual interaction. If you have to work extra hours in the office you will have less time to enjoy time with family or friends, which can leave you unsatisfied and vice versa.
Psychological Capital Questionnaire
Newman, Ucbasaran [ 12 ] also stated in their meta-analysis that besides predicting higher levels of work-family conflict, low PsyCap predicts less meaning of life, things that should result in a decrease in life satisfaction.
Lastly it has been reported that life satisfaction is positively related to optimism and self-esteem [ 34 ], posing another connection to PsyCap. For these reasons, we expect a moderate to high positive correlation between the CPC and life satisfaction. Subjective well-being Since well-being is measured in many studies as a compound construct consisting of positive and negative affect, life satisfaction and job satisfaction [ 3536 ], PsyCap, as expected, positively relates to well-being [ 2237 — 39 ].
Avey, Luthans [ 38 ] furthermore show that PsyCap can lead to psychological well-being over time.
We therefore expect a high positive correlation between subjective well-being and the CPC Findings from Karademas [ 41 ] support those claims as he reports a direct positive relationship between social support and life satisfaction as well as an indirect one through optimism.
Cascio and Luthans applied the principles of PsyCap in their retrospective analysis of prisoners in the notorious South African prison, Robben Islandto argue that PsyCap was the key to enabling the prisoners such as Nelson Mandela and Jacob Zuma to survive, resist, and effectuate change to prison life and their guards.
The construct called "hope" was developed by Charles R. Snyder and has two components: The construct called "efficacy" is defined as the "employee's conviction or confidence about his or her abilities to mobilize the motivation, cognitive resources or courses of action needed to successfully execute a specific task within a given context. The construct called "resilience" is characterized as positive coping and adaptation in the face of risk or adversity. The construct called "optimism" is associated with having a positive outcome, outlook, or attribution, including positive emotions and motivations, while maintaining a realistic outlook.
- Measuring Psychological Capital: Construction and Validation of the Compound PsyCap Scale (CPC-12)
- Positive Psychological Capital : Measurement and Relationship with Performance and Satisfaction
Higher scores correspond to greater psychological capital abilities. This six-item scale measures an individual's ability to persevere towards goals and redirect paths to goals in order to succeed. This six-item scale measures an individual's ability to have confidence to take on and put in the necessary effort to succeed at challenging tasks. This six-item scale measures an individual's ability to sustain and bounce back when beset by problems and adversity to attain success.