The endomembrane system (article) | Khan Academy
Many vesicles are made in the Golgi apparatus and the endoplasmic reticulum, or are made from parts of the cell membrane by endocytosis. Vacuoles are single-membrane organelles that are essentially part of the outside that is located within the cell. The single membrane is known in plant cells as a. At the cell membrane, the vesicles can fuse with the larger lipid bilayer, causing out to be advantageous to both cells, which created a symbiotic relationship.
Let's take a closer look at the different parts of the endomembrane system and how they function in the shipping of proteins and lipids. The endoplasmic reticulum The endoplasmic reticulum ER plays a key role in the modification of proteins and the synthesis of lipids. It consists of a network of membranous tubules and flattened sacs. The discs and tubules of the ER are hollow, and the space inside is called the lumen.
Rough ER The rough endoplasmic reticulum rough ER gets its name from the bumpy ribosomes attached to its cytoplasmic surface. As these ribosomes make proteins, they feed the newly forming protein chains into the lumen.
Some are transferred fully into the ER and float inside, while others are anchored in the membrane. Inside the ER, the proteins fold and undergo modifications, such as the addition of carbohydrate side chains.
These modified proteins will be incorporated into cellular membranes—the membrane of the ER or those of other organelles—or secreted from the cell. If the modified proteins are not destined to stay in the ER, they will be packaged into vesicles, or small spheres of membrane that are used for transport, and shipped to the Golgi apparatus.
A: Vesicles and Vacuoles - Biology LibreTexts
The rough ER also makes phospholipids for other cellular membranes, which are transported when the vesicle forms. Micrograph and diagram of the endoplasmic reticulum. Micrograph shows the rough ER as a series of membrane folds surrounding the nucleus.
Smooth ER The smooth endoplasmic reticulum smooth ER is continuous with the rough ER but has few or no ribosomes on its cytoplasmic surface. Functions of the smooth ER include: Synthesis of carbohydrates, lipids, and steroid hormones Detoxification of medications and poisons Storage of calcium ions In muscle cellsa special type of smooth ER called the sarcoplasmic reticulum is responsible for storage of calcium ions that are needed to trigger the coordinated contractions of the muscle cells.
Ectosomes were named inbut in are not considered a separate type. These EVs contain varied cargo, including nucleic acids, toxins, lipoproteins and enzymes and have important roles in microbial physiology and pathogenesis. In host-pathogen interactions, gram negative bacteria produce vesicles which play roles in establishing a colonization niche, carrying and transmitting virulence factors into host cells and modulating host defense and response. Vesicles carrying DNA from diverse bacteria are abundant in coastal and open-ocean seawater samples.
Vesicle (biology and chemistry)
Gas vesicle Gas vesicles are used by Archaeabacteria and planktonic microorganisms, possibly to control vertical migration by regulating the gas content and thereby buoyancyor possibly to position the cell for maximum solar light harvesting.
These vesicles are typically lemon-shaped or cylindrical tubes made out of protein;  their diameter determines the strength of the vesicle with larger ones being weaker.
The diameter of the vesicle also affects its volume and how efficiently it can provide buoyancy. In cyanobacteria natural selection has worked to create vesicles that are at the maximum diameter possible while still being structurally stable. The protein skin is permeable to gasses but not water, keeping the vesicles from flooding. Using electron microscopy they were discovered independently in by H. Clarke Anderson  and Ermanno Bonucci. During normal calcificationa major influx of calcium and phosphate ions into the cells accompanies cellular apoptosis genetically determined self-destruction and matrix vesicle formation.
Calcium-loading also leads to formation of phosphatidylserine: Matrix vesicles bud from the plasma membrane at sites of interaction with the extracellular matrix. Thus, matrix vesicles convey to the extracellular matrix calcium, phosphate, lipids and the annexins which act to nucleate mineral formation. These processes are precisely coordinated to bring about, at the proper place and time, mineralization of the tissue's matrix unless the Golgi are non-existent. This loss of support to the cell walls of a plant results in the wilted appearance.
Additionally, this fluid has a very bitter taste, which discourages consumption by insects and animals. The central vacuole also functions to store proteins in developing seed cells.
In single-celled eukaryotes, lysosomes are important for digestion of the food they ingest and the recycling of organelles. These enzymes are active at a much lower pH more acidic than those located in the cytoplasm. Many reactions that take place in the cytoplasm could not occur at a low pH, thus the advantage of compartmentalizing the eukaryotic cell into organelles is apparent.
Lysosomes also use their hydrolytic enzymes to destroy disease-causing organisms that might enter the cell. In a process known as phagocytosis, a section of the plasma membrane of the macrophage invaginates folds in and engulfs a pathogen. The invaginated section, with the pathogen inside, then pinches itself off from the plasma membrane and becomes a vesicle. The vesicle fuses with a lysosome.