# Vapor pressure and intermolecular forces relationship goals

### How are vapor pressure and boiling point related? | Socratic

more the intermolecular forces, lesser is the vapour pressure this is how it goes Vapor pressure is In the end, we can make the overall relationship that: . The vapor pressure of a liquid is the equilibrium pressure of a vapor above its liquid (or solid); that is, the If the intermolecular forces between molecules are. In addition, there is a very interesting correlation between the volatility of a liquid and the boiling point of the liquid. Without exception, the substances with high.

Only at this temperature or above will the rate of evaporation be great enough to offset the rate of condensation created by the externally applied pressure. To find the boiling point temperature at 1 atm pressure, we need to find the temperature at which the vapor pressure is 1 atm. To do so, we find the point on the graph where the vapor pressure is 1 atm and read off the corresponding temperature, which must be the boiling point.

Of course, this will work at any given pressure. We just read off of Figure 1 the temperature at which the vapor pressure equals the applied pressure, and that will be the temperature at which the liquid boils at that pressure.

### States of Matter and Intermolecular Forces - Chemistry LibreTexts

This means that Figure. They are the same graph! Remember that in the experiment, at the boiling point we observed that both liquid and gas are at equilibrium with one another. Both phases are present at the boiling point. This is true at every combination of applied pressure and boiling point temperature.

Therefore, for every combination of temperature and pressure along the curve on the graph in Figure 1, we observe liquid-gas equilibrium. What happens at combinations of temperature and pressure which are not on the line drawn in Figure 1?

## How are vapor pressure and boiling point related?

We first start at any temperature-pressure combination on the curve and elevate the temperature while holding the applied pressure constant. In Figure 1, this moves us to the right of the curve.

We observe that all of the liquid vaporizes, and there is only gas in the container. What happened to the equilibrium? At higher temperature, the vapor pressure of the liquid rises, but if the applied pressure does not also increase, then the vapor pressure will be greater than the applied pressure. The vapor pushes back the piston and the liquid evaporates. We must therefore not be at equilibrium anymore.

For all temperature and pressure combinations to the right of the curve, only vapor exists.

### Phase Equilibrium and Intermolecular Forces

We observe that all of the gas condenses into the liquid. This is because the vapor pressure is below the applied pressure, and the piston moves in against the gas until it all condenses into the liquid. For all temperature and pressure combinations to the left of the curve, only liquid exists. What if we start at a temperature-pressure combination on the curve and elevate the applied pressure without raising the temperature? The applied pressure is now greater than the vapor pressure, and as before all of the gas will condense into the liquid.

Just as before, for all points to the left of or above the curve, only liquid exists. The opposite reasoning applies if we decrease the applied pressure. Figure 1 thus actually reveals to us what phase or phases are present at each combination of temperature and pressure: We know that, if the temperature is low enough, we expect that the water will freeze into solid. To complete the phase diagram, we need additional observations.

We go back to our apparatus we used before, with a piston in a cylinder trapping liquid water and vapor in phase equilibrium. If we slowly lower the temperature, the vapor pressure decreases slowly as well, as shown in Figure 1. However, if we continue to lower the temperature, we observe an interesting transition, as shown in the more detailed Figure 2.

Below this temperature, the pressure continues to vary smoothly, but along a slightly different curve. To understand what we have observed, we examine the contents of the container. As with the liquid-vapor curve, we can interpret this new curve in two ways. The solid-gas curve gives the vapor pressure of the solid water as a function of temperature, and also gives the sublimation temperature as a function of applied pressure.

Figure 2 is still not a complete phase diagram, because we have not included the combinations of temperature and pressure at which solid and liquid are at equilibrium. Very careful measurements reveal that the solid-gas line and the liquid-gas line intersect in Figure 2 where the temperature is 0. Under these conditions, we observe inside the container that solid, liquid, and gas are all at equilibrium inside the container.

If we raise the applied pressure slightly above the triple point, the vapor must disappear. We can observe that, by only slightly varying the temperature, the solid and liquid remain in equilibrium. After a period of time the rate of escape of molecules from the liquid phase equals the rate of condensation of vapor into the liquid phase. When this occurs the system is in equilibrium. That is the two rates are equal, and there is no net change. If a particle in the vapor phase condenses, an instant later a particle evaporates.

The system is in a state of dynamic equilibrium. That is particles are constantly changing from vapor to liquid phase and visa versa.

However, if we measure the vapor pressure of the sample we see there is no change in pressure over time. The pressure exerted by the water molecules in the vapor phase, above the liquid, is called the vapor pressure of the liquid at the particular temperature. Next we continued our discussion of vapor pressure of liquids by turning our attention to a demonstration setup showing three barometers.

Here is an animation of the demonstration we performed live in class. The glass tubes contained mercury. No ideally air molecules are found in the space above the mercury, i.

A sample of liquid introduced at the bottom of the column the liquid will rise up the tube to the top of the mercury, because of density differences. When the reaches the space above the mercury the liquid will immediately vaporize to an extent equal to or less than the vapor pressure of the liquid at the particular temperature. Whether the pressure exerted is equal to the vapor pressure of the liquid depends on the amount of liquid injected.

If we introduce water, ethanol and ether into different columns we can see the difference in the vapor pressure, at room temperature of each liquid. Notice the difference in the height of the column of mercury after introducing the water sample. The change in height is equal to the vapor pressure of the water Notice there is a small amount of liquid water resting on the surface of the mercury.

Next we'll try ethanol. Notice the vapor pressure of ethanol is greater at the same temperature 55 mmHg. Finally we tried ether. First a small amount.

## 11.1: States of Matter and Intermolecular Forces

We noticed the height of the column of mercury, but also notice that there was no liquid on the surface of the mercury. This meant that all of the liquid introduced vaporized. It all vaporized because the resulting pressure exerted by the sample of ether is smaller than the vapor pressure of ether. So more ether had to be added.

And the level of the mercury drops even further. Finally it has reached a level equal to the vapor pressure diethyl ether it is mmHg. Next we looked a plot of vapor pressure y-axis versus temperature x-axis and observed the exponential increase in vapor pressure with temperature. We also discussed the definition of a boiling point. The correct definition of boiling point is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of a liquid equals atmospheric pressure.

With this definition we can understand why liquids boil at lower temperatures when heated at high altitudes. At high altitudes the atmospheric pressure is lower, there is less atmosphere above the surface at high altitudes.

If the atmospheric pressure is lower water will boil at a temperature at which the vapor pressure is equal to the atmospheric pressure. This is a lower temperature. I can get water boiling at room temperature. How hot is water boiling at room temperature?