Thousand Day War / War of a Thousand Days ()
Liberals in Britain and Europe Civil War and its relationship to. Full hostilities between Liberal and Conservative forces raged from The Conservatives controlled Mexico City, but not. War of a Thousand Days (). Colombia was wracked by civil wars between partisans of the Liberal and Conservative parties in the 19th . Equally strong objections were made to the marriage laws, as these laws.
The Liberal Party represented coffee plantation owners and workers who had been largely excluded from the government after the Conservatives' ascension to power in the 's. The revolution was begun on October 17,almost the precise date of the outbreak of the Boer war. The government placed 75, men under arms, and the revolutionists were believed to have mustered 35, Some combats of greater or less importance had been reported up to February ; the number of men killed on both sides, up to that time, was estimated at 50, In January Vice-President Jose Marroquin seized upon the government, imprisoned President San Clemente who died in prison in Marchand another period of disturbance began.
The rebels were defeated in May in a desperate battle at Cartagena, and continuous fighting went on about Panama, where British marines had to be landed to protect foreign interests. As the year advanced, the conflict went on with varying success, but the government troops were generally victorious. In August,the Vice-President, Marroquin, made himself master of the Government, and carried on an energetic campaign against the Liberals.
Vice-President Marroquin was recognized as the acting head of the executive, with a cabinet under General Calderon. His administration was seriously handicapped by the lack of concord among the Conservative leaders.
The main Liberal forces were defeated within seven months. However, disorganized guerrilla warfare continued for the next two and a half years in the rural areas, resulting in significant destruction of property and loss of life.
The Conservative government was unable topacify the countryside through military means, imprisonment, or expropriation of property. To re-establish order in the nation, the Conservative government negotiated a peace with the Liberals promising amnesty to the rebels, free elections, and political reform.
In the rebellion continued, and severe fighting took place about Colon. Fighting went on with great fierceness, the government troops generally winning the battles. On several occasions foreign troops had to be landed to protect foreign interests, as was the case at Colon and Panama, to protect the operations of the Panama Railroad.
On the final overthrow of the revolutionists, the country was in a deplorable condition. Tens of thousands of lives had been destroyed, as well as property and trade.
In many towns and villages practically the entire male population was wiped out. This revolution had a particular bearing upon the United States, because it was during its progress that the United States was negotiating with Colombia for the Panama Canal Zone. During it was supposed, with good reason, that the rebels were receiving aid from Venezuela and Ecuador, where the Liberal elements were in power, and were aiming at the overthrow of the Conservative Party and the ultimate restoration of the old Republic of Colombia, embracing the present commonwealths of Colombia, Venezuela, and Ecuador.
Severe fighting occurred around Panama in and He is currently writing a book on the international context of the Civil War. Readers may contact Doyle at doyledh mailbox. She is the author of North over South: Her current research explores the experiences of Civil War soldiers and veterans between and World War I. Readers may contact Grant at susan.
MAIER is the Leverett Saltonstall Professor of History at Harvard University, where his research focuses on comparative international history, European-American relations, and twentieth-century European political, economic, and social history.
He is the author of Among Empires: American Ascendency and Its Predecessors Readers may contact Maier at csmaier fas. He has written extensively on nineteenth- and twentieth-century U.
Nagler is also interested in comparative and transnational history and the relationship between Germany and the United States. Eine Biographie Abraham Lincoln, America's greatest president: He is currently writing a history of the global significance of the American Civil War. Readers may contact Nagler at joerg. His first book, Shifting Grounds: Nationalism and the American South, —, will be published in fall by Oxford University Press.
His current research explores the American Civil War and the transformation of citizenship. Readers may contact Quigley at paul. He is the author of The Monroe Doctrine: Readers may contact Sexton at jay. What opportunities and challenges do transnational and global approaches present to the study of the American Civil War? Antebellum America was already embedded in global market processes and movements of people.
The multiethnic character of this army clearly indicates the international dimension of the war. When we address the transnational significance of the American Civil War, we also need to ask about the contemporaneous awareness and perception of this conflict. The communication channels of the mid-nineteenth century were already quite developed.
With specific political intentions, newspapers supplied information and basic themes of the Civil War to their readership. The Western world observed this conflict with great interest since its themes—the definition of nationhood, the future of unfree labor, warfare for an industrial age, the possibilities and means of a democratic society to endure such a horrendous conflict, majorities versus minorities in a democratic process, and the power of the central state—were also pertinent to other industrializing societies.
A transnational approach could also better explain the relationship between war and nation building, as well as examine the context of the dialectics between the globalization of violence and national wars from —, from the Taiping Rebellion to the Franco-Prussian War.
The American Civil War appears then as one part of those processes, albeit the one with the greatest impact. A further challenge is one of terminology and definitions. There is a need for more precision in methodology and reflections on what we expect to gain when we apply transnationalism in our research. To help, there is a good literature on the theory of transnationalism. We can compare, for example, the development of nationalism in the nineteenth century in different regions of the world and then realize that in certain cases these developments were interconnected by transnational networks of politicians, intellectuals, and other multipliers.
We should also be aware of the dialectical relationship between outside-in and inside-out movements: We need precision in discussions about global, transnational, or comparative history. They are different conceptually, asking different questions. Global implies that there is a general history within which a local history is embedded; and that local history can, in turn, change global history.
There are causal connections crossing borders and common to large parts of if not the entire world. This is not a new idea. In the s Frederick Jackson Turner observed: Certainly it is part of the history of liberalism—the French Revolution and the Enlightenment, the invention to use Lynn Hunt's phrase of human rights, British abolitionism and the general rejection of unfree labor in many nations.
The Civil War is also related to a particularly important moment in the history of liberalism— Here nation and freedom were linked. The nation would be the instrument of freedom. That new conception of nation presages the modern nation-state. The Civil War and freedom of various kinds were entangled with that development.
The modern nation-state also made an implicit promise to enable economic development, which was both a global and a U. The biggest challenge for historians is to uncover the engine driving this international history. Ernest Gellner, and to some degree Eric Hobsbawm, linked the making of the modern state with industrialism, which they saw as producer or product of a national economy.
Certainly there is some association, but to determine if industrialism and, for Gellner, high culture was a key element of this emergence, we need to find the common, global historical developments and patterns of causation behind the conjuncture of emancipation and nation making that occurred in roughly a single generation in different parts of the world. It seems to me that historians seeking to understand how American emancipation was like or unlike other New World emancipations will be engaged in a rather different sort of work than historians tracing the response of European labor groups to Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation.
All may be contributing to the same big picture, but do they employ different brushes or paints to make their contributions?
Are there good examples of works that operate on all registers?
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For a different, earlier period, maybe David Brion Davis's work is a good example of comparative, transnational, and entangled history all at once.
One could employ a transnational approach to complement the traditional narratives that we already have of the Civil War period. We could simply slot new research on transnational networks or ideas into existing frameworks. Yet one could also use transnational or global perspectives to reframe the Civil War in more fundamental ways.
Leslie Butler is right that this requires different tools. Some of the best works that situate the Civil War in its global context take such an approach. Do we need to distinguish between different kinds of processes in different places? The case of the United States is often compared to Europe at the same time, especially Germany. Another angle would be to view the U.
History of liberalism
As Leslie has said, different historical problems require different approaches, and so the approaches or frameworks we choose—global, transnational, comparative, whatever—should fit our subject rather than vice versa. Selecting parameters becomes one of the major challenges once you discard or rethink the idea that the nation-state is the supreme unit of modern history. A major challenge for transnational and global approaches to any historical problem is where to set the boundaries, both chronological and geographical.
Let me propose four possible contexts for the U. Civil War in this regard: What would happen if we reperiodized the arcs of American history as two century-long movements, from the Stamp Act to Appomattox — and then again from —?
The sequence of imperial reconstruction, independence, and civil war—often leading to the breakup of states and the creation of new ones—is familiar from the history of Spanish America afterthough usually in a tight period of twenty years at most, rather than ninety years ca.
Can we examine the dynamics of sovereignty, state formation, and territoriality in North America with similar—perhaps at times intersecting—dynamics in Central and South America and the Caribbean in the nineteenth century? This might be the most traditional, well-tried, and immediately pursuable path for comparison and connection. Comparisons between nation-state formation in North America, Germany, and Italy have been common for decades but—pace the title of our interchange—is nationalism the right optic for comparison?
One criterion for using a global frame might be large-scale militarized violence. Civil War in the context of what we might call the world crisis of the nineteenth century, spanning —, and including the world's first industrial war the Crimean War [—]its bloodiest war by far the Taiping Rebellion [—]the Indian Rebellionthe Boshin War in Japan —and the Franco-Prussian War — The thesis of a general crisis of the seventeenth century has taken a battering of late and that of a world crisis of the Age of Revolutions is under active debate, but the period — seems a uniquely tight, unusually destructive, and possibly interconnected moment of global violence that deserves analysis as a temporal unit on a worldwide scale.
Global connections were quite evident to actors in the period we are examining: This included Catholic newspapers such as La Cruz and conservative groups that strongly attacked Liberal policies and ideology.
This ideology had roots in the European Enlightenment, which sought to reduce the role of the Catholic Church in society. The Reforms began in the s and s coalesced into the principal laws of the Reform era, which were passed in two phases, from —57 and then from — The Constitution of Mexico was promulgated near the end of the first phase.
More Reform laws were passed from —63 and after when the Liberals emerged victorious after two civil wars with Conservative opponents. The painting by Petronilo Monroy was completed after the expulsion of the French in The first of the Liberal Reform Laws were passed in It was conceived of as a moderate measure, rather than abolishing church courts altogether. However, the move opened latent divisions in the country. Under this new law the government began to confiscate Church land.