In this way, looks for establish a relation between thinkers of geography thinkers that work with cultural issue and the notion of communication space2. . Wagner and Mikesell said that a community of people who share a common culture. If culture is a consequence of the interactions of humans, the acts of communication are their cultural manifestations within a specific community. Ferruccio. Culture and communication have been defined and re-defined repeatedly, when man first appeared and established interpersonal relationships with the different individuals forming separate communities, thus allowing for intercultural.
Where a group traditionally meets, whether meetings begin on time or not, what topics are discussed, how decisions are made, and how the group socializes are all elements of what, over time, become defining and differentiating elements of its culture.
Organizations also have cultures, often apparent in particular patterns of dress, layout of workspaces, meeting styles and functions, ways of thinking about and talking about the nature and directions of the organization, leadership styles, and so on.
A societal or national culture also includes such elements as significant historical events and characters, philosophies of government, social customs, family practices, religion, economic philosophies and practices, belief and value systems, and concepts and systems of law. Thus, any social unit—whether a relationship, group, organization, or society—develops a culture over time. While the defining characteristics—or combination of characteristics—of each culture are unique, all cultures share certain common functions.
Religion, Culture, and Communication
Three such functions that are particularly important from a communication perspective are 1 linking individuals to one another, 2 providing the basis for a common identity, and 3 creating a context for interaction and negotiation among members. The Relationship Between Communication and Culture The relationship between communication and culture is a very complex and intimate one.
First, cultures are created through communication; that is, communication is the means of human interaction through which cultural characteristics— whether customs, roles, rules, rituals, laws, or other patterns—are created and shared. It is not so much that individuals set out to create a culture when they interact in relationships, groups, organizations, or societies, but rather that cultures are a natural by-product of social interaction.
Without communication and communication media, it would be impossible to preserve and pass along cultural characteristics from one place and time to another. One can say, therefore, that culture is created, shaped, transmitted, and learned through communication.
The reverse is also the case; that is, communication practices are largely created, shaped, and transmitted by culture. To understand the implications of this communication-culture relationship, it is necessary to think in terms of ongoing communication processes rather than a single communication event.
For example, when a three-person group first meets, the members bring with them individual thought and behavioral patterns from previous communication experiences and from other cultures of which they are, or have been, a part. As individuals start to engage in communication with the other members of this new group, they begin to create a set of shared experiences and ways of talking about them.
If the group continues to interact, a set of distinguishing history, patterns, customs, and rituals will evolve. New members would in turn influence the group culture in small, and sometimes large, ways as they become a part of it. In a reciprocal fashion, this reshaped culture shapes the communication practices of current and future group members. This is true with any culture; communication shapes culture, and culture shapes communication.
Characteristics of Culture Cultures are complex and multifaceted. The cultures of relationships or groups are relatively simple compared to those of organizations and, especially, societies. Edward Hallis one of the most significant contributors to the general understanding of the complexity of culture and the importance of communication to understanding and dealing with cultural differences at the societal level.
It follows that if other cultures—whether of relationships, groups, organizations, or societies—look different, those differences are often considered to be negative, illogical, and sometimes nonsensical. If, for example, an individual happens to be in a romantic relationship that is characterized by public displays of affection, that person might think that the behaviors of other people who have more reserved relational cultures may seem strange, even inappropriate.
The person might wonder why a romantic couple would not be more open in displaying affection to one another in public. This phenomenon is true in a variety of situations. People who are used to informal meetings of a group might think that adherence to formal meeting rules is strange and stilted. Employees in an organization where suits are worn every day may react with cynicism and questioning when they enter an organization where casual attire is standard practice.
Someone from a culture that permits one man to have only one wife may find it quite inappropriate that another culture allows one man to have multiple wives.
Cultures change over time. In fact, cultures are ever changing—though the change is sometimes very slow and imperceptible. Many forces influence cultural change. As indicated above, cultures are created through communication, and it is also through communication between individuals that cultures change over time. Each person involved in a communication encounter brings the sum of his or her own experiences from other past or present culture memberships.
Babylon | The Relationship Between Communication and Culture.
In one sense, any encounter between individuals in new relationships, groups, organizations, or societies is an intercultural communication event, and these varying cultural encounters influence the individual and the cultures over time. Travel and communication technologies greatly accelerate the movement of messages from one cultural context to another, and in small and large ways, cultures come to influence one another through communication.
For Marx, the notion that the Catholic Church, for example, had the ability or right to excommunicate an individual, and thus essentially exclude them from the spiritual community, was a classic example of exploitation and domination.
Such alienation and exploitation was later echoed in the works of Friedrich Nietzsche —who viewed organized religion as society and culture controlling man Nietzsche, Building on Marxist thinking, Weber — stressed the multicausality of religion. Weber emphasized three arguments regarding religion and society: Until the Protestant Reformation of the 15th and 16th centuries, Catholicism was the dominant religious ideology on the European continent.
However, since the Reformation, Europe has increasingly become more Protestant and less Catholic. To fully grasp why many Europeans gravitate toward Protestantism and not Catholicism, we must consider the historical and cultural reasons: Finally, even though the majority of Europeans identify as Protestant, secularism separation of church and state is becoming more prominent in Europe.
In nations like France, laws are in place that officially separate the church and state, while in Northern Europe, church attendance is low, and many Europeans who identify as Protestant have very low religiosity strength of religious devotionfocusing instead on being secularly religious individuals.
From a Weberian point of view, the links among religion, history, and culture in Europe explain the decline of Catholicism, the rise of Protestantism, and now the rise of secularism. Emile Durkheim — focused more on how religion performs a necessary function; it brings people and society together.
Durkheim thus defined a religion as a unified system of beliefs and practices relative to sacred things, that is to say, things which are set apart and forbidden—beliefs and practices which unite into one single moral community called a Church, all those who adhere to them.
For example, religious rituals one type of practice unite believers in a religion and separate nonbelievers. The act of communion, or the sharing of the Eucharist by partaking in consecrated bread and wine, is practiced by most Christian denominations.
However, the frequency of communion differs extensively, and the ritual is practiced differently based on historical and theological differences among denominations. Georg Simmel — focused more on the fluidity and permanence of religion and religious life. Simmel believed that religious and cultural beliefs develop from one another.
Moreover, he asserted that religiosity is an essential element to understand when examining religious institutions and religion. While individuals may claim to be part of a religious group, Simmel asserted that it was important to consider just how religious the individuals were.
In much of Europe, religiosity is low: The decline of religiosity in parts of Europe and its rise in the U. This framework is distinct from the more Western way of thinking, in that notions of present, past, and future are perceived to be chronologically distorted, and the relationship between cause and effect is paradoxical Wimal, In his philosophy, existence takes precedence over essence, and any existing object reflects a part of the creator. Therefore, every devoted person is obliged to know themselves as the first step to knowing the creator, which is the ultimate reason for existence.
This Eastern perception of religion is similar to that of Nagarajuna and Buddhism, as they both include the paradoxical elements that are not easily explained by the rationality of Western philosophy. For example, the god, as Mulla Sadra defines it, is beyond definition, description, and delamination, yet it is absolutely simple and unique Burrell, Culture How researchers define and study culture varies extensively. Geertzbuilding on the work of Kluckhohndefined culture in terms of 11 different aspects: Geertz,p.The "Art" of Communication - Jimmy Nelson - TEDxInstitutLeRosey
The essentialist view regards culture as a concrete and fixed system of symbols and meanings Holiday, An essentialist approach is most prevalent in linguistic studies, in which national culture is closely linked to national language. Regarding culture as a fluid concept, constructionist views of culture focus on how it is performed and negotiated by individuals Piller, In principle, a non-essentialist approach rejects predefined national cultures and uses culture as a tool to interpret social behavior in certain contexts.
Different approaches to culture influence significantly how it is incorporated into communication studies. Cultural communication views communication as a resource for individuals to produce and regulate culture Philipsen, Cross-cultural communication typically uses culture as a national boundary. Hofstede is probably the most popular scholar in this line of research. Culture is thus treated as a theoretical construct to explain communication variations across cultures.
This is also evident in intercultural communication studies, which focus on misunderstandings between individuals from different cultures. Religion, Community, and Culture There is an interplay among religion, community, and culture.
Community is essentially formed by a group of people who share common activities or beliefs based on their mutual affect, loyalty, and personal concerns. Participation in religious institutions is one of the most dominant community engagements worldwide.
Religious institutions are widely known for creating a sense of community by offering various material and social supports for individual followers. In addition, the role that religious organizations play in communal conflicts is also crucial. As religion deals with the ultimate matters of life, the differences among different religious beliefs are virtually impossible to settle. Although a direct causal relationship between religion and violence is not well supported, religion is, nevertheless, commonly accepted as a potential escalating factor in conflicts.
Currently, religious conflicts are on the rise, and they are typically more violent, long-lasting, and difficult to resolve. In such cases, local religious organizations, places facilitating collective actions in the community, are extremely vital, as they can either preach peace or stir up hatred and violence. However, this decline in the authority of the religious institutions in modernized society has not reduced the important role of religion and spirituality as one of the main sources of calm when facing painful experiences such as death, suffering, and loss.
When cultural specifications, such as individualism and collectivism, have been attributed to religion, the proposed definitions and functions of religion overlap with definitions of culture.
For example, researchers often combine religious identification Jewish, Christian, Muslim, etc. Religion as Part of Culture in Communication Studies Religion as a part of culture has been linked to numerous communication traits and behaviors. Specifically, religion has been linked with media use and preferences e.
In media and religion scholarship, researchers have shown how religion as a cultural variable has powerful effects on media use, preferences, and gratifications. These studies suggest the significance of religion in health communication and in our health.
Research specifically examining the links between religion and interpersonal communication is not as vast as the research into media, health, and religion. However, this slowly growing body of research has explored areas such as rituals, self-disclosure Croucher et al.