The Power-Conflict Story explains patterns of behavior in major world out the dynamic connections between two rival nations' power relationship and their. Conflict negotiation intervenes directly in the relationships of power, authority and The technique is an imposed structure for controlled negotiations between. The relationship between power bases and conflict management styles of Indonesia's formal leaders. Wirawan, Ed.D. Western Michigan University, UMI.
An example of this is the authority of the manager of a business. The wise manager recognises that the employee has knowledge about her or his job which the manager cannot possess. Charismatic Authority — literally God given Authority—the right to be heard by reason of the religious, or pseudo-religious, mantle borne by the person.
Commonly this is bestowed upon the clergy of the various world religions, but can be a feature of other ideologies. Moral Authority — the right to be heard because the person is trying to bring about an improvement to the situation. Role and Role Relationship Understanding Role and Role Relationship Role is the pattern of behaviour expected by others, from a person occupying a certain position in an organisational hierarchy Huczynski and Buchanan The concept of role is one that has been used extensively to understand the behaviour of people in organisations.
A person may be observed in a single role, e. Definitions of role can depend on how they are to be used. A prescriptive definition, which is concerned with what a person, should do when he plays a certain role e. An evaluative definition can assess how well or badly the role is being performed, against established standards or criteria.
A descriptive definition, which is based on the actual duties, performed by the person and could include the content of the work done as well as the interactions engaged with. An action definition specifies the actions involved in its performance. All four aspects of role are interrelated and interdependent. Role relationship is that intangible mixture of feelings and emotions that exist between two or more people Huczynski and Buchanan A relationship can be considered in the way in which one uses oneself in a disciplined and responsible way when dealing with a group or individual.
Individuals have role relationships with each other and these can help them to achieve their aims at work. Organisations can be thought of as a set of overlapping and interlocking role sets. A role influences the behaviour of an individual by setting limits within which he is expected to act.
Many of the tasks involved in a job have been learned and assimilated so well that they become accepted a being part of the person.
The Power-Conflict Story
Role relationships therefore are the field within which behaviour occurs. Their personalities Their perception and understanding of each other Their attitudes to the behavioural constraints imposed by the role relationship.
The degree of their socialisation with respect to constraints Their ability to inhibit and control their behaviours. An important function of role relationships is to reduce the areas of possible uncertainty to manageable proportions. Understanding conflict and its management Conflict is the friction or opposition resulting from actual or perceived differences or incompatibilities with others and their roles Huczynski and Buchanan Most of us seek harmony but conflict is everywhere.
Conflict is not necessarily unhealthy and some groups thrive on it. It might be most active when groups have just formed: The best teams are those able to use conflict productively i. Conflict is a natural and very typical phenomenon in every type of human relationships, at every level: From intrapersonal the realm of psychology to global.
The Power-Conflict Story
Conflicts at every level have very significant common characteristics and dynamics. People get involved in conflicts because their interests or their values are challenged or because their needs are not met.
Emotional conflict, which involves negative emotions and dislike of the other people involved in the conflict. Administrative conflict, which refers to disagreements regarding the manner in which a goal should be reached. Within a team conflict can occur at different levels: The opportunities for role conflict can occur as the various roles interact with one another.
Even everyday questions about the price of bread or gasoline, whether to change one's job, or hiring a baby-sitter become matters of government policy. All modem state-societies are antifields to some extent, and the front between antifield and social field is the region of potential social storms.
Whether in fact conflict will be manifest is another question. This depends on the force and terror 3 the elite are willing to employ.
Repression raises the costs of opposing the elite. However across societies there is a curvilinear relationship between elite force and manifest conflict. Where force is little used, the elite have high legitimacy and conflicts can be adjusted through traditional institutions. The increase in the use of force signals a decrease in legitimacy or a blockage of the demands of those seeking a change in policies or status quo.
As legitimacy decreases, the political system increasingly is seen as the source of social ills and a change in elite or system as the solution. Thus, manifest conflict and repression will at first be positively related. However, if repression becomes extensive, elite terror widespread, and force systematically applied, then overt opposition becomes suppressed.
Total repression is effective in establishing a conflict-free structure of expectations, as the surface harmony of the Soviet and Communist Chinese systems show, and as is clear from the harmony of concentration camps, slave labor camps, and prisons.
Each type of power should generate a distinct range of conflict behavior. Moreover, each dimension of conflict should be associated with a particular type of state.
The following sections will briefly describe what these types of conflict should be. That is, each conflict should concern a relatively isolated group, event, or issue. Since structures of expectations are overlapping and diverse, their formation or disruption should present a multiple spectrum of conflict manifestations, such as strikes, protests, demonstrations, riots, attacks on property, and so on. Issues may occasionally reach societal proportions, but the freedom to remove political elite and veto or influence public policy, and the conflict aggregating and defusing function of competitive political parties, provide mechanisms for conflict bargaining and compromise far short of revolutionary violence.
Moreover, multiple group and class membership create cross-pressures inhibiting the formation of a societal wide conflict front. Pluralistic conflict is therefore intrinsic to the interactions and change within exchange societies.
It is the normal friction associated with the multiple building and dissolution of implicit and formal contracts and groups in a free society.
The theoretical and practical aspects of power and authority, role and conflict | Health Knowledge
In an exchange society, conflict manifestations over-all will be at a constant but low level. If one measures the intensity of conflict from one state to the next, where such a measure takes into account the number of killed in domestic violence, the number of revolutions, coups, riots, assassinations, and so on, then this measure of societal strife should be inversely related to the degree to which a society is based on exchange power.
Elite are granted the right to govern on the basis of widely shared religious or ethical principles. The political system is based on a consensus, on a legitimacy.
Conflict behavior may occur between groups, bandit groups may prey on outlying villages, food riots may occur in time of scarcity, and peasants may revolt against exploitive landlords, even in an authoritative society isolated from external sources of change.
Moreover, coups or palace revolutions may settle ambiguities in elite succession, or replace a ruler who has lost his legitimacy or "mandate from heaven.
These may become quite violent, without attacking or bringing into question the legitimacy of the over-all order Gluckman, A problem for many authoritative states is that they are not one consensual society, but often two or more different subsocieties balanced against each other within a common political system.
Such is the case with many African states, such as Nigeria. These divisions are communal, often based on racial, language, and tribal homogeneity and territorial separation. Where activities within communal divisions are left alone by the state, conflict will not occur.
But where authoritarian rulers try to extend their legitimacy over such communities, violence is often the result. This conflict is acerbated if class and racial-language-tribal cleavages are the line of class division. If one communal division comprises the elite and the others the ruled, then violence is highly probable. Thus, authoritarian states will manifest communal and traditional conflict.
This conflict behavior will comprise coups, revolutions, and successional revolts of communal subsocieties as well as apolitical banditry, family or class feuds, guild confrontations, and the like.
The theoretical and practical aspects of power and authority, role and conflict
Possible leaders of political opposition are jailed or disappear, and subjects who voice or hint at dissent may be tortured and sent off to a slave labor camp for many years. Under these conditions, conflict manifest in exchange or authoritative systems will not occur. When the elite use overwhelming coercive power arbitrarily and effectively, overt opposition by its subjects cannot build up.
But two varieties of conflict do occur. First, there is the violence of the elite or government against the masses. Execution, torture, jailing, and forced labor camps are endemic and widespread. Here, the number involved and the number killed will exceed those affected by all forms of strife in authoritative or exchange systems.
Instability is common and elite executions, purges, and demotions are the standard way of maintaining power and policies. Within totalitarian political systems, the balance of political power comprises different elite factions, among which conflict is settled through eliminating or disarming the opposing elite. Conflict in coercive societies is manifested by class terror and repression, and elite purges. These are very broad, bereft of much detail at this point, and on the order of directional propositions.
They emphasize the power basis of conflict, the role of interests and expectations, and the importance of the societal context. The next chapters beginning with Chapter 33 will subject these propositions to empirical test, and in the process flesh out their bones.
Note that these eight propositions ignore frustration, deprivation, poverty, anomie as conditions or causes of conflict, which are the social science folk beliefs of our time.
The next volume, Vol. Conflict In Perspectivewill consider these popular explanations of social conflict, and relate their arguments to the conflict helix and propositions. Rummel, The Conflict Helix, For full reference to the book and the list of its contents in hypertext, click book. Typographical errors have been corrected, clarifications added, and style updated.